Seneca Valley Virus (SVV), or Senecavirus A in swine, is a picornavirus that is part of the same family of viruses that includes the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMD) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). It was discovered in 2002 incidentally as a cell culture contaminant, but produces vesicular lesions in pigs that are clinically indistinguishable from FMD or SVDV. The incidence of SVV increased in 2015 compared to historical incidence in other years. Academics and researchers from the swine health community are working with the USDA and others to help understand the scope of the cases and the role SVV has in causing clinical disease, but much is still unknown.
The transmission routes for SVV are not well understood, but it is thought to be spread readily by direct contact with infected animals, fomites or exposure to aerosolized virus. Proven methods for prevention and control of SVV are lacking, though common biosecurity practices should be in place.
Clinical Signs of Illness
- Vesicular lesions around the distal limbs, especially the coronary bands
- Crusting and sloughing of the hoof wall
- Fluid filled vesicles or ulcers in and around the mouth, snout and nares
Diagnosis of SVV requires sample submissions to a diagnostic laboratory. Swine owners should contact their veterinarian for assistance immediately and stop any movement of animals from the facility.
There is no record of SVV causing human disease.